Call for Abstract
Global Experts Meeting On Diabetes, Hypertension & Metabolic Syndrome, will be organized around the theme “
Diabetes Meet 2018 is comprised of 25 tracks and 194 sessions designed to offer comprehensive sessions that address current issues in Diabetes Meet 2018.
Submit your abstract to any of the mentioned tracks. All related abstracts are accepted.
Register now for the conference by choosing an appropriate package suitable to you.
has developed in novel years; the sheer number of new technologies entering into the marketplace is also growing at a remarkable rate. From the patient’s perspective, this can lead to a sense of optimism. Technologies that today are growing commonplace e.g. insulin pumps, rapid HbA1c monitoring, etc. come under new therapeutic mechanisms of diabetes. The major advances in type 1 diabetes care have come from technology rather than biology. At the same time, not all new technologies succeed regardless of their purported promise.
- Track 1-1Diabetes in specific ethnic groups
- Track 1-2 Gestational Diabetes
- Track 1-3 Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
- Track 1-4Pregnancy with Type 1 Diabetes
- Track 1-5 Risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes
- Track 1-6Novel Biomarkers for Type 2 Diabetes
- Track 1-7Diabetic Neuropathy and dietary supplements
- Track 2-1Nerve Damage (Neuropathy)
- Track 2-2Diabetic Heart diseases
- Track 2-3Kidney damage (nephropathy)
- Track 2-4Eye damage (retinopathy)
- Track 2-5Foot damage
- Track 2-6Skin conditions
- Track 2-7UTIs(Urinary Tract Infections)
- Track 2-8Constipation and Diarrhoea
- Track 2-9Coeliac disease
- Track 2-10Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic eye disease refers to a group of eye problems that people with diabetes may face as a complication of diabetes. People with diabetes are at risk for diabetic retinopathy, cataract and glaucoma.
In some people with diabetic retinopathy, blood vessels may swell and leak fluid. In other people, abnormal new blood vessels grow on the surface of the retina. The retina is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. A healthy retina is necessary for good vision.
If you have diabetic retinopathy, at first you may not notice changes to your vision. But over time, diabetic retinopathy can get worse and cause vision loss. Diabetic retinopathy usually affects both eyes.
- Diabetic eye disease comprises a group of eye conditions that affect people with diabetes. These conditions include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema (DME), cataract, and glaucoma.
- All forms of diabetic eye disease have the potential to cause severe vision loss and blindness.
- Diabetic retinopathy involves changes to retinal blood vessels that can cause them to bleed or leak fluid, distorting vision.
- Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of vision loss among people with diabetes and a leading cause of blindness among working-age adults.
- DME is a consequence of diabetic retinopathy that causes swelling in the area of the retina called the macula.
- Controlling diabetes—by taking medications as prescribed, staying physically active, and maintaining a healthy diet—can prevent or delay vision loss.
- Because diabetic retinopathy often goes unnoticed until vision loss occurs, people with diabetes should get a comprehensive dilated eye exam at least once a year.
- Early detection, timely treatment, and appropriate follow-up care of diabetic eye disease can protect against vision loss.
- Diabetic retinopathy can be treated with several therapies, used alone or in combination.
- Track 3-1Opthalmic Investigations
- Track 3-2Diabetic macular edema (DME)
- Track 3-3Nonproliferative and Proliferative retinopathy
- Track 3-4Laser Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy
- Track 3-5Vitrectomy surgery
- Track 3-6Cataract and Glaucoma
With diabetes, the small blood vessels in the body are injured. When the blood vessels in the kidneys are injured, your kidneys cannot clean your blood properly. Your body will retain more water and salt than it should, which can result in weight gain and ankle swelling. You may have protein in your urine. Also, waste materials will build up in your blood.
What is diabetic kidney disease?
Diabetic kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy) is a complication that occurs in some people with diabetes. In this condition the filters of the kidneys, the glomeruli, become damaged. Because of this the kidneys 'leak' abnormal amounts of protein from the blood into the urine. The main protein that leaks out from the damaged kidneys is called albumin.
In normal healthy kidneys only a tiny amount of albumin is found in the urine. A raised level of albumin in the urine is the typical first sign that the kidneys have become damaged by diabetes. Diabetic kidney disease is divided into two main categories, depending on how much albumin is lost through the kidneys:
· Microalbuminuria: in this condition, the amount of albumin that leaks into the urine is between 30 and 300 mg per day. It is sometimes called incipient nephropathy.
· Proteinuria: in this condition the amount of albumin that leaks into the urine is more than 300 mg per day. It is sometimes called macroalbuminuria or overt nephropathy.
- Track 4-1Albuminuria
- Track 4-2Nutrition for Advanced Kidney Disease
- Track 4-3Kidneys and Bone Disease
- Track 4-4Kidney Transplants
- Track 4-5Anemia and Kidney Disease
- Track 4-6Erythropoietin-Renal Hormone
- Track 4-7Dialysis of Kidneys
- Track 4-8Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
Type 2 diabetes is by far the most common type of diabetes in adults (>90 percent) and is characterized by hyperglycemia and variable degrees of insulin deficiency and resistance in Clinical presentation and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in adults.
- Track 5-1Novel Paradigms in Diabetic Complications
- Track 5-2Clinical diagnosis and laboratory tests
- Track 5-3Diabetes, Prediabetes and Metabolic Syndrome
- Track 5-4Clinical trials on animal models
- Track 5-5Novel research and treatment strategies on diabetes
- Track 5-6Clinical presentation and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in adults
- Track 5-7Clinical case reports and clinical endocrinology practices
- Track 6-1Frontiers in diabetic management
- Track 6-2Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines
- Track 6-3Dietary management, impact of physical activity & yoga therapy
- Track 6-4Impact of food & nutrition in diabetes management
- Track 6-5Educating patients, family member and caretakers
- Track 6-6Angioplasty and Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)
- Track 6-7Diabetic Foot Ulcers
- Track 6-8Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) device & Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)
- Track 6-9Diabetes and the brain
- Track 6-10Diabetes and cancer
- Track 6-11Diabetes advocacy
- Track 6-12Educating patients, family member and caretakers
- Track 6-13Balancing diabetes through motivation, knowledge, and support
- Track 6-14Innovative insulin delivery and insulin clearance
- Track 6-15Glucose Sugar Tolerability
is the main tool you have to check your diabetes control. This check tells you your blood glucose level at any one time. The bridges the gap between two pieces of diabetes technology that already exist: the insulin pump and the continuous glucose monitor (CGM). Relatively, a large percentage of world population is affected by diabetes mellitus, out of which approximately 5-10% with type 1 diabetes while the remaining 90% with type 2. is essential for type 1 patients while it is required at later stage by the patients of type 2. Current are available as transdermal injections which may be considered as invasive. Several non-invasive approaches for insulin delivery are being pursued by pharmaceutical companies to reduce the pain, and hypoglycemic incidences associated with injections in order to improve patient compliance.
- Track 7-1Insulin pumps and insulin infusion systems
- Track 7-2Blood glucose monitoring: Glucose pumps and sensors
- Track 7-3New insulin delivery systems: Inhaled, transdermal, and implanted devices
- Track 7-4Informatics in the service of medicine; telemedicine, software and other technologies
- Track 7-5 Closed-loop system and algorithm
- Track 7-6 Implantable pumps and sensors
- Track 7-7Glucose sensors (invasive and non-invasive)
- Track 7-8Artificial pancreas
- Track 7-9Bariatric surgery versus intensive medical and conventional therapy
- Track 7-10Acupuncture for diabetic complications
- Track 7-11Insulin Pens and novel Insulin delivery techniques
- Track 7-12Insulin secretion in vitro and exocytosis
- Track 7-13IPR and socio issues in diabetes research
- Track 8-1Genetics of metabolic syndrome: Challenges and relation with diabetes mellitus
- Track 8-2Recent advances in genetics of diabetes
- Track 8-3Genetic-lifestyle interactions in the development and prevention of diabetes
- Track 8-4Diabetes in specific ethnic groups
Drugs used in treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood. With the exceptions of Insulin, exenatide, liraglutide and pramlintide, all are administered orally and are thus also called oral hypoglycemic agents or oral . There are different classes of anti-diabetic drugs, and their selection depends on the nature of the diabetes, age and situation of the person, as well as other factors.
is a disease caused by the lack of insulin. Insulin must be used in Type I, which must be injected.
is a disease of insulin resistance by cells. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common type of diabetes. Treatments include (1) agents that increase the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreas, (2) agents that increase the sensitivity of target organs to insulin, and (3) agents that decrease the rate at which glucose is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
Several groups of drugs, mostly given by mouth, are effective in Type II, often in combination. address the core problem in Type II diabetes—insulin resistance.
, also known as "," bind to PPARγ, a type of nuclear regulatory protein involved in transcription of genes regulating glucose and fat metabolism.
are drugs that increase insulin output from the pancreas. Meglitinides help the pancreas produce insulin and are often called "short-acting secretagogues".
are "diabetes pills" but not technically hypoglycemic agents because they do not have a direct effect on insulin secretion or sensitivity. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors increase blood concentration of the incretin GLP-1 by inhibiting its degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4.
- Track 9-1 Meglitinides – nateglinide (Nonsulfonylurea secretagogues)
- Track 9-2Biguanides – metformin (Insulin Sensitizers)
- Track 9-3 Sulfonylureas - glimepiride, glipizide, glyburide ( Secretagogues)
- Track 9-4Thiazolidinediones (Tzd) – pioglitazone (Insulin Sensitizers)
- Track 9-5Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors – Acarbose (Diabetes Pills)
- Track 9-6 Injectable Incretin mimetics
- Track 9-7 Injectable Amylin analogues
- Track 9-8 Glycosurics (sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2)Inhibitors)
- Track 10-1Obesity and diabetes
- Track 10-2 Diabetic dyslipidemia
- Track 10-3 Epidemiology of diabetes in geriatric population
- Track 10-4Diabetes and Parkinson disease
- Track 10-5Bioinformatics tools and techniques used in diabetes Research
- Track 10-6]New technologies for treating obesity
- Track 10-7 Diabesity - Methods to control or prevent diabetes in obese people
- Track 10-8Bariatric Surgery & Obesity
- Track 10-9Anti-diabetic Agents
- Track 10-10Albuminuria
Endocrinology is a specialty of medicine; some would say a sub-specialty of internal medicine, which deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases related to hormones. Endocrinology covers such human functions as the coordination of metabolism, respiration, reproduction, sensory perception, and movement. Endocrinology also focuses on the endocrine glands and tissues that secrete hormones. The human endocrine system consists of a number of glands. These glands produce and secrete hormones which control the body's metabolism, growth, sexual development and function. When the hormones leave the glands they enter the bloodstream and are transported to organs and tissues in every part of the body.
- Track 11-1Diagnosis & Treatment of Endocrine disorders
- Track 11-2 Paediatric Endocrinology Disorders & Treatment
- Track 11-3 Current Advances in Endocrinology & Metabolism
- Track 11-4General Endocrinology
- Track 11-5 Clinical Trials in Endocrinology
Endocrine disorders are often quite complex, involving a mixed picture of hyposecretion and hypersecretion because of the feedback mechanisms involved in the endocrine system. For example, most forms of hyperthyroidism are associated with an excess of thyroid hormone and a low level of thyroid stimulating hormone. Patients with multi-transfused thalassemia major may develop severe endocrine complications due to iron overload. The anterior pituitary is particularly sensitive to iron overload which disrupts hormonal secretion resulting in hypogonadism, short stature , acquired hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidism. Glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus are also common in thalassaemic patients. Delayed or absent puberty and hypogonadism may result in fertility problems which affect enormously the life of thalassemics. Glucose intolerance in adolescence and diabetes mellitus later in life are also frequent complications mainly due to iron overload, chronic liver disease and genetic predisposition. Primary hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidsm usually appear in the second decade of life; are related to iron overload and may be reversible at an early stage by intensive chelation. Osteopenia and osteoporosis due to a complicated pathogenesis represent prominent causes of morbidity in young adults of both genders with thalassaemia. Early recognition and prevention of the endocrine complications, by early and regular chelation therapy, is mandatory for the improvement of the quality of life and psychological outcome of these patients.
- Track 12-1Growth retardation
- Track 12-2•Delayed Puberty and Hypogonadism
- Track 12-3Fertility Disorders (Amenorrhea & Polycystic ovary syndrome)
- Track 12-4 Hysterosalpingography
- Track 12-5Impaired carbohydrate metabolism
- Track 12-6 Chelation Toxicity
- Track 12-7Lupus Erythematosus and Sjogren Syndrome
- Track 12-8 Anorexia nervosa
Endocrinology is a perplexing investigation of the different hormones and their action and disorder in the body. Endocrine Glands are organs that make hormones. These are substances that control exercises in the body and effectively affect the digestion system, multiplication, nourishment retention and use, development and improvement and so on. Hormones likewise control the way a living being reacts to their environment and help by giving sufficient vitality to different capacities. Diabetes is brought about by a diminished creation of insulin or by a diminished capacity to utilize insulin. Insulin, the hormone delivered by the beta cells in the pancreas, permits (glucose) cells to have the capacity to utilize glucose.
- Track 13-1Anatomy of Endocrine system
- Track 13-2Adipocyte function and Immune-metabolism
- Track 13-3Endocrine Hormones- Actions and Interactions
- Track 13-4Endocrine Tissues and Organs
- Track 13-5Lipid metabolism by glucocorticoids
- Track 13-6Role of DNA methylation in insulin secretion
- Track 13-7Regulation of biosynthesis of steroid hormones by peptide hormones (LH, FSH, ACTH)
Endocrinology is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases and its specific secretions known as hormones, growth promotion and malignancy. Behavioral endocrinology is the study of hormonal processes and neuroendocrine systems that influence or regulate behaviour. Endocrinology includes the wide area that not only affects our endocrine system, but also has effects on skin which shows indirectly involvement of dermatology.
Metabolic syndrome is a medical disorder results in formation of cluster of conditions that includes, increased blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that occur together, increasing your risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes. Metabolic syndrome is closely linked to overweight or obesity and inactivity and also linked to a condition called insulin resistance. Genetic factors influence each individual component of the syndrome, and the syndrome itself. Metabolic syndrome is also known as syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, or dysmetabolic syndrome.
- Track 14-1Signs and symptoms
- Track 14-2Causes of Endocrinology and Metabolic Syndrome
- Track 14-3 Risk factors associated with Endocrinology and Metabolic Syndrome
- Track 14-4Diagnosis, Treatments and Medications
- Track 14-5Pathophysiology of Endocrinology and Metabolic Syndrome
Cardiovascular disease refers to more than one disease of the circulatory system including the heart and blood vessels, whether the blood vessels are affecting the lungs, the brain, kidneys or other parts of the body. Coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease involve atherosclerosis. This may be caused by high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, and excessive alcohol consumption, among others.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors but the relative prevalence of cardiovascular disease in women with PCOS has not previously been reported. High blood pressure results in 13% of CVD deaths, while tobacco results in 9%, diabetes 6%, lack of exercise 6% and obesity 5%. The effect of the use of aspirin in people who are otherwise healthy is of unclear benefit. Treatment of those who have CVD improves outcomes. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death globally. Coronary artery disease and stroke account for 80% of CVD deaths in males and 75% of CVD deaths in females. Most cardiovascular disease affects older adults.
- Track 15-1Endocrine Signals and the Cardiovascular System
- Track 15-2Endocrine signals and Nuclear receptors
- Track 15-3 Heart failure
- Track 15-4Growth hormone deficiency and growth disorders
- Track 15-5Ischemic ,Rheumatic and Congenital heart disease
- Track 15-6Peripheral and Cerebro vascular disease (Stroke)
- Track 15-7Hypothyroidism, Hyperthyroidism and Myocarditis, Endocarditis
- Track 15-8 Venous Thrombosis
Endocrine glands are a group of glands in the body which secrete hormones. The endocrine system influences how your heart beats, how your bones and tissues grow, even your ability to make a baby. It plays a vital role in whether or not you develop diabetes, thyroid disease, growth disorders, sexual dysfunction, and a host of other hormone-related disorders. Endocrine disorders are typically grouped into two categories:
· Endocrine disease that results when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone, called a hormonal imbalance.
· Endocrine disease due to the development of lesions (such as nodules or tumours) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect on hormone levels.
Being overweight or obese predisposes an individual to many medical problems including diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, depression and some types of cancer. Endocrinologists work closely with dieticians, exercise physiologists, behavioural therapists and bariatric surgeons as part of the Comprehensive Weight Loss Centre to help patients achieve realistic weight-loss goals and improve health.
- Track 16-1Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS )
- Track 16-2Lipid Control in Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome
- Track 16-3Diabetes mellitus, Hyperlipidemia, Osteoporosis
- Track 16-4Polycystic ovary syndrome and Cushing’s syndrome
- Track 16-5Growth hormone deficiency and growth disorders
- Track 16-6 Follicular and Medullary thyroid cancer
- Track 16-7 Thyroid growths, underactivity/overactivity
- Track 16-8 Response to Acute Spinal-Cord Injury
Nutrition & Metabolism focuses on the integration of nutrition, exercise physiology, clinical investigations, and molecular and cellular biochemistry of metabolism. The areas of interest of Nutrition & Metabolism encompass studies in obesity, diabetes, lipidemias, metabolic syndrome and exercise physiology that have an underlying basis in metabolism. Metabolic effects of dietary protein are complex. In persons with type 2 diabetes, protein ingestion results in little or no increase in plasma glucose concentrations but a stimulation of insulin and glucagon secretion. The nutritional requirements of a neonate are significantly greater than those of an adult because not only are there requirements for substrate intake to fulfil basic metabolic needs, but there are metabolic needs to maintain rapid and continued growth and development.
- Track 17-1 Metabolic response to hypoxia
- Track 17-2 Nutrition and Metabolic response in Health and Disease
- Track 17-3Metabolic response and nutritional support in traumatic brain injury
- Track 17-4Nutritional and Metabolic Stress
- Track 17-5 Response to Acute Spinal-Cord Injury
- Track 17-6Metabolic Response Modifers
- Track 17-7Response to ingested glycine
The initial management of metabolic syndrome involves lifestyle modifications, including changes in diet and exercise habits.  Indeed, evidence exists to support the notion that the diet, exercise, and pharmacologic interventions may inhibit the progression of metabolic syndrome to diabetes mellitus.
- Track 18-1Pharmacologic Therapy
- Track 18-2 Hyperglycemia treatment
- Track 18-3Triglyceride treatment
- Track 18-4Preventive cardiovascular treatment
- Track 18-5 Complementary and alternative medicine
Hypertension, additionally called as high vital sign or blood vessel cardiovascular disease could be a chronic medical condition during which the blood pressure within the arteries is elevated. This session mainly covers the different types of hypertension and their assessment. Isolated systolic hypertension, resistant hypertension are all recognized hypertension sorts with specific diagnostic criteria. A sphygmomanometer, is a device used to measure blood pressure, composed of an inflatable cuff to collapse and then release the artery under the cuff in a controlled manner, and a mercury.
Globally, the overall prevalence of raised blood pressure in adults aged 25 and over was around 40% in 2010. Because of population growth and ageing, the number of people with uncontrolled hypertension ranges from 600 million in 1980 to nearly 1 billion in 2010.The national Million Hearts initiative endeavors to increase the number of persons whose hypertension is under control, by 10 million, as part of its goal to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes by the year of 2018.
- Track 19-1 Secondary hypertension
- Track 19-2 Hypertension rheumatoid arthritis
- Track 19-3 Pediatric hypertension
- Track 19-4 oncology and blood pressure
- Track 19-5genetic factors and life style of high blood pressure
- Track 19-6 Hypertension and obesity
- Track 19-7 Diabetes and dermatology
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a rise of blood pressure within the artery, vein, or respiratory organ capillaries, resulting in shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting, leg swelling and different symptoms. This type of hypertension that affects the arteries in the lungs and the right side of your heart, then it begins when tiny arteries in your lungs, called pulmonary arteries, and capillaries become narrowed, blocked or destroyed. This makes it harder for blood to flow through your lungs, and raises pressure within your lungs' arteries.
As the pressure builds, your heart's lower right chamber must work harder to pump blood through your lungs, eventually causing your cardiac muscle to weaken and eventually fail. Pulmonary hypertension is a serious illness that becomes progressively worse and is sometimes fatal. Pulmonary hypertension worsens over time and is life-threatening because the pressure in a patient's pulmonary arteries rises to dangerously high levels, putting a strain on the heart. There is no cure for pulmonary hypertension, but several medications are available to treat symptoms. The various complications to related to pulmonary hypertension are congestive heart failure, blood clotting, liver disease, Lupus, Rheumatoid Arthritis, chronic bronchitis, HIV Associated Pulmonary Hypertension, and PH in Association with Sickle Cell Disease.
- Track 20-1 Classification of pulmonary hypertension
- Track 20-2Restorative and administration of medications
- Track 20-3 Prevalence of pulmonary hypertension
- Track 20-4 Asthma and allergy
- Track 20-5 Treatment and therapies
- Track 20-6Diagnosis by echocardiography
- Track 20-7 Pulmonary embolism
- Track 20-8Genetics and molecular pathology
- Track 20-9Sign, symptoms and causes of PH
- Track 20-10Endothelial dysfunction
Gestational hypertension or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is the development of new hypertension in a pregnant woman after 20 weeks’ gestation without the presence of protein in the urine or other signs of preeclampsia and eclampsia. Gestational hypertension is usually defined as having a blood pressure higher than 140/90 measured on two separate occasions, more than 6 hours apart, without the presence of protein in the urine and diagnosed after 20 weeks of gestation. There is no specific treatment, but is monitored closely to rapidly identify pre-eclampsia and its life-threatening complications.
Drug treatment options are limited, as many antihypertensive may negatively affect the fetus. Methyldopa, hydralazine, and labetalol are most commonly used for severe pregnancy hypertension. The fetus is at increased risk for a variety of life-threatening conditions, including pulmonary hypoplasia (immature lungs). If the dangerous complications appear after the fetus has reached a point of viability, even though still immature, then an early delivery may be warranted to save the lives of both mother and baby. An appropriate plan for labor and delivery includes selection of a hospital with provisions for advanced life support of newborn babies.
During gestational hypertension, a woman must be offered an integrated package of care, covering admission to hospital, treatment, measurement of blood pressure, testing for proteinuria and blood tests.
Gestational hypertension in a future pregnancy ranges from about 1 in 8 (13%) pregnancies to about 1 in 2 (53%) pregnancies.
- Track 21-1Risk factors for gestational hypertension
- Track 21-2Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia
- Track 21-3Pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia
- Track 21-4 Genetic changes and stress incontinence.
- Track 21-5 Drug treatment of gestational hypertension
- Track 21-6Surgical and non-surgical conditions
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney failure, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
Hypertension and diabetes are two of the leading risk factors for atherosclerosis and its complications, including heart attacks and strokes. There is substantial overlap between diabetes and hypertension, reflecting substantial overlap in their etiology and disease mechanisms. Cardiovascular risk factor prevalence study, only 42% of people with diabetes had normal blood pressure and only 56% of people with hypertension had normal glucose tolerance.
Diabetes causes hyperinsulinemia and raises the risk of hypertension. This condition increases the amount of sodium that the body absorbs. It also promotes the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. This is thought to cause changes in blood vessel structure, which affects the function of the heart and blood pressure.
- Track 22-1Risk factors for diabetes
- Track 22-2 Treatment and therapies
- Track 22-3Destruction of the islet β-cell
- Track 22-4Advanced treatments for diabetes
- Track 22-5Herbal and alternative remedies
- Track 22-6Early management of obesity
- Track 22-7 Diabetes and dermatology
Hypertension is the most prevalent and powerful modifiable risk factor for stroke. Persons with hypertension are about 3 or 4 times more likely to have a stroke. Hypertension remains the single most important modifiable risk factor for stroke, and the impact of hypertension and nine other risk factors together account for 90% of all strokes. The two major types of stroke include ischemic stroke (caused by blood clots), which accounts for 85% of strokes, and hemorrhagic stroke (bleeding in the brain), which accounts for 15% of strokes.
Prevention of stroke is a major public health priority, but needs to be based on a clear understanding of the key preventable causes of stroke. Therefore, although the highest BP levels predict the highest relative risk of stroke, the conceptual pendulum has swung in the direction of the continuum of absolute BP levels and somewhat away from the construct of “hypertension”. Furthermore, as discussed below, recent evidence points to the fact that mediators of hypertension, such as Angiotensin II, may influence stroke risk independently of Blood pressure elevation.
- Track 23-1 Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
- Track 23-2Brain RAS on blood pressure control
- Track 23-3 Hypertensive encephalopathy
- Track 23-4 Cerebrovascular dysfunction
- Track 23-5Stroke epidemiology and prevention
- Track 23-6 Hemorrhagic stroke
- Track 23-7 Myocardial infarction
Heart disease describes a range of conditions that affect the heart. Diseases under the heart includes blood vessel diseases, such as coronary artery disease; heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias); and heart defects you're born with (congenital heart defects), among others. Heart disease term is often used interchangeably with the cardiovascular disease. It generally refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke. Other heart conditions, such as those that affect your heart's muscle, valves or rhythm, also are considered forms of heart disease. Many forms of heart disease can be prevented or treated with healthy lifestyle choices.
Heart disease is the study of the effects of drugs on the entire cardiovascular system, which includes the heart and blood vessels. The various complications to related to diabetes are Cerebrovascular disease, Inflammatory, Hypertensive heart disease, Ischemic, Rheumatic heart disease, Acute heart failure and Heart transplantation.
- Track 24-1Hypertension and tachycardia
- Track 24-2Structural heart disease
- Track 24-3 Transient ischemic attack
- Track 24-4Risk factor for fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular disease
- Track 24-5 Cardiovascular medicine research
- Track 24-6New theories of diagnosis of the blood vessels
- Track 24-7 Cardiometabolic diseases management
- Track 24-8 Cardiac rehabilitation
- Track 24-9Cardiac catheterizations, and electrophysiology studies
Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is the leading risk factor associated with death in the world but is largely asymptomatic and often undetected in patients. Hypertension is typically asymptomatic and only detected through opportunistic screening. Once hypertension has been diagnosed, further tests should be conducted, including urine testing, blood tests, an eye examination and a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Primary hypertension, in which no specific cause is found, affects 95% of patients. Blood pressure is expressed in terms of systolic blood pressure (higher reading), which reflects the blood pressure when the heart is contracted (systole), and diastolic blood pressure (lower reading), which reflects the blood pressure during relaxation (diastole).
Hypertension can be diagnosed when either systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, or both are raised. Blood pressure is determined by the cardiac output balanced against systemic vascular resistance. The process of maintaining blood pressure is complex, and involves numerous physiological mechanisms, including arterial baroreceptors, the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, atrial natriuretic peptide, endothelin’s, and mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid steroids.
- Track 25-1 Renin angiotensin aldosterone system
- Track 25-2Sodium /potassium ratio hypothesis of essential hypertension
- Track 25-3Echocardiogram
- Track 25-4Endoscopy
- Track 25-5 Vascular damage in hypertension
- Track 25-6 Endothelial dysfunction
- Track 25-7Polysomnogram